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Table 2. Technical Specifications of LandMapper ERM-02

Table 2. Technical Specifications of LandMapper ERM-02

Range of measurements   ……………………………………….……..    ER= 0.1-1 106 Ohm m

LandMapper ERM-02 – three parameter geophysical instrument

The newest model, LandMapper ERM-02, can automatically output EC or ER, accepts four-electrode probes of any configuration, including dipole-dipole and rectangular probes, reaches down to 10 m depth in most soils and stores up to 999 resistivity values in non-volatile memory. Also, ERM-02 model can be used to measure natural electrical potentials in soils, plants and other media with two non-polarizing electrodes (Figs. 2&3).

Introducing LandMapper ERM-01

To address those applications Landviser, LLC has developed and commercialized first model of LandMapper ERM-01 in 2004, which was able to measure electrical resistivity with central-symmetric four-electrode probes of Shlumberger and Wenner configurations to the depth of five meters. Device became popular among agricultural researchers in USA and Europe, and was tested for fast mapping and monitoring of agricultural and horticultural lands (Pozdnyakova et al., 2004; Paillet et al., 2010; Duncan et al., 2008; Carrow and Duncan, 2004).

LandMapper ERM-02: handheld meter for near-surface electrical geophysical surveys

published in December, 2010 issue of FastTIMES, online peer-reviewed journal of EEGS. To cite this publication use:FastTIMES dec 2010 Agriculture: A budding field in Geophysics

Golovko, Larisa, Anatoly Pozdnyakov, and Antonina Pozdnyakova. “LandMapper ERM-02: Handheld Meter for Near-Surface Electrical Geophysical Surveys.” FastTIMES (EEGS) 15, no. 4 - Agriculture: A Budding Field in Geophysics (December 2010): 85–93. http://www.landviser.net/webfm_send/69

Abstract

On-the-go sensors, designed to measure soil electrical resistivity (ER) or electrical conductivity (EC) are vital for faster non-destructive soil mapping in precision agriculture, civil and environmental engineering, archaeology and other near-surface applications. Compared with electromagnetic methods and ground penetrating radar, methods of EC/ER measured with direct current and four-electrode probe have fewer limitations and were successfully applied on clayish and saline soils as well as on highly resistive sandy soils, such as Alfisols and Spodosols. However, commercially available contact devices, which utilize a four-electrode principle, are bulky, very expensive, and can be used only on fallow fields. Multi-electrode ER-imaging systems applied in deep geophysical explorations are heavy, cumbersome and their use is usually cost-prohibited in many near-surface applications, such as forestry, archaeology, environmental site assessment and cleanup, and in agricultural surveys on farms growing perennial horticultural crops, vegetables, or turf-grass. In such applications there is a need for accurate, portable, low-cost device to quickly check resistivity of the ground on-a-spot, especially on the sites non-accessible with heavy machinery.

Electrical Fields and Soil Properties (17th World Congress of Soil Science)

The most downloadable PDF publication on Landviser, LLC website is our proceedings paper on 2002 World Congress of Soil Science. So we decided to publish it on our site as our first interactive eBook. It a short synopsis of our research on application of electrical geophysical methods to study soil genesis and provides theoretical background to all applied case studies. To cite this presentation use:

Pozdnyakov, Anatoly, and Larisa Pozdnyakova. “Electrical Fields and Soil Properties.” In 17 World Congress of Soil Science, Symp. 53:Paper #1558. Bangcock, Tailand, 2002. http://www.landviser.net/webfm_send/1.
Registered users can download PDF of full text of proceedings paper from our website. Or browse online version below and leave your comments. You might also like to go to IUSS website to get PDFs of other publications on World Congress of Soil Science.

 Abstract

The electrical fields in the surface of soils appear as many different kinds. Methods of self- potential (SP), electrical profiling (EP), vertical electrical sounding (VES), and non-contact electromagnetic profiling (NEP) was used to measure the electrical properties of basic soil types, such as Spodosols, Alfisols, Histosols, Mollisols, and Aridisols (USA Soil Classification) of Russia in situ. The density of mobile electrical changes, reflected in measured electrical properties, was related to many soil physical and chemical properties. Soil chemical properties (humus content, base saturation, cation exchange capacity (CEC), soil mineral composition, and amount of soluble salts) are related to the total amount of charges in soils. Soil physical properties, such as water content and temperature, influence the mobility of electrical charges in soils. The electrical parameters were related with soil properties influencing the density of mobile electrical charges in soils by exponential relationships based on Boltzmann's distribution law of statistical thermodynamics (r=0.657-0.990). Generally, the electrical methods can be used for in situ soil mapping and monitoring when the studied property lone highly influences the distribution of mobile electrical charges in the soil. The electrical properties were used to improve soil characterization for soil morphology and genesis studies; to develop accurate soil maps for precise agriculture practices; and to evaluate soil pollution, disturbance, and physical properties for engineering, forensic, and environmental applications.

Locations

Bangcock 13° 45' 7.9992" N, 100° 29' 38.0004" E
59° 44' 53.8008" N, 41° 23' 47.3424" E

Electrical Fields and Soil Properties

This publication was presented on 17th World Congress of Soil Science in Bangcock, Tailand. It a short synopsis of our research on application of electrical geophysical methods to study soil genesis and provides theoretical background to all applied case studies. To cite this presentation use:

Pozdnyakov, Anatoly, and Larisa Pozdnyakova. “Electrical Fields and Soil Properties.” In 17 World Congress of Soil Science, Symp. 53:Paper #1558. Bangcock, Tailand, 2002. http://www.landviser.net/webfm_send/1.
 

Registered users can download PDF of full text of proceedings paper from our website. Or browse online version below and leave your comments. You might also like to go to IUSS website to get PDFs of other publications on World Congress of Soil Science.

Abstract

The electrical fields in the surface of soils appear as many different kinds. Methods of self- potential (SP), electrical profiling (EP), vertical electrical sounding (VES), and non-contact electromagnetic profiling (NEP) was used to measure the electrical properties of basic soil types, such as Spodosols, Alfisols, Histosols, Mollisols, and Aridisols (USA Soil Classification) of Russia in situ. The density of mobile electrical changes, reflected in measured electrical properties, was related to many soil physical and chemical properties. Soil chemical properties (humus content, base saturation, cation exchange capacity (CEC), soil mineral composition, and amount of soluble salts) are related to the total amount of charges in soils. Soil physical properties, such as water content and temperature, influence the mobility of electrical charges in soils. The electrical parameters were related with soil properties influencing the density of mobile electrical charges in soils by exponential relationships based on Boltzmann's distribution law of statistical thermodynamics (r=0.657-0.990). Generally, the electrical methods can be used for in situ soil mapping and monitoring when the studied property lone highly influences the distribution of mobile electrical charges in the soil. The electrical properties were used to improve soil characterization for soil morphology and genesis studies; to develop accurate soil maps for precise agriculture practices; and to evaluate soil pollution, disturbance, and physical properties for engineering, forensic, and environmental applications.

Keywords: stationary and non-stationary electrical fields, soil morphology, soil genesis, electrical resistivity and potential, soil properties

Quick Estimation of Salinity in Field Soils and Irrigation Water with LandMapper ERM-02

ec mapping with Landmapper on dead rice field after hurracaine IkeSoil salinity is routinely evaluated in the labs from electrical conductivity of liquid soil saturation extract (ECe). The resulted total salinity is reported either directly in conductivity units (dS/m) or converted to TDS (total dissolved solids) concentration in ppm (parts per million) using formula: 1 dS/m = 1 mS/cm = 1 mmho/cm = 640 ppm = 640 mg/L= 0.64 g/L=0.064%

But now EC of soil and waters can be measured directly in the field using highly accurate method of four-electrode probe and Landmapper ERM-02 measuring device. Best of all, probes can be build to sense different soil layers down to 30 ft! Probes are simple and inexpensive to make from common materials available at any hardware store.

For irrigation water and soil solutions: To measure ECw just put 4-electrode probe of Landmapper used for mapping into a ditch, canal, or other water source. Make sure that all 4-electrodes are in contact with water. Take a reading in EC (conductivity) mode. Display will read (example):  
K0*C= 150m  - which indicates milli Siemens (mS/m)
To convert to dS/m, divide display number by 100, i.e. 150 mS/m=1.5 dS/m.

Vertical Electrical Sounding to detect peat deposit thickness and drying depth

VES to detect peat deposit depthThe valley landscapes of humid areas are dominated with peat soils of various origins, which become the most productive soils after the proper drainage and cultivation. The high fertility and proximity to water make peat soils the most desirable for vegetable production. However, these soils are also subject to quick degradation during agricultural usage. Excess drainage increases the unproductive decomposition and mineralization of peat and can cause spontaneous ignition of peat soils, whereas little or no drainage can be non-sufficient for normal agricultural practices. Therefore, drainage design and the following agriculture practice on peat soils should be based on careful studies of the peat soil genesis and hydrology of the areas.

 Method VES is suitable for detection the resistivity in different soil and geological strata without digging or boring. Usually, peat shows not much difference in electrical properties along the profile. Water content of cultivated peat soils is close to the field capacity during the whole growing season.

Soil Science

Applications of electrical geophysical methods in classic Soil Science (Pedology, Soil Genesis and Classification) - browse the links and maps on this page to find out more...

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