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Electrical resistivity, the inverse of conductivity. Ohm m is SI unit of measure. ER=1/EC

Geophysical and Geostatistical Software

RES2DINV with topographyLandviser, LLC has developed a 1D interpretation software for soil vertical electrical sounding (iVES), which available for FREE download. We also an authorized distributor for a number of special software for interpretation of geophysical surveys such as RES2DINV and RES3DINV, resistivity inversion imaging by GEOTOMO Software (Malaysia); RadExPro, seismic interpretation by DECO Geophysical software company (Russia).

Current complete catalog of Landviser, LLC

RES2DINV and RES3DINV tech specs


LandMapper ERM-02 - new handheld EC/ER/SP meter

LandMapper - field EC meter with lab accuracy*We have a new bath of LandMappers ERM-02 in stock! Please, contact us or +1-609-412-0555 / 888-306-LAND to discuss suitability of ERM-01 or ERM-02 for your applications.  *******

LandMapper ERM-02 is a newest device in the product line of Landviser, LLC. This portative device can measure three important electrical properties of solid, semisolid, and liquid media: electrical resistivity (ER), conductivity (EC), and potential (EP). Using the most accurate four-electrode principle LandMapper ERM-02 measures ER or EC to help new deviceyou to delineate areas with contrasting soil properties within the fields quickly, non-destructively, and cost-efficiently. Using the device prior to soil sampling you can significantly reduce the amount of samples required and precisely design a sampling plan based on the site spatial variability.

LandMapper ERM-02 measures electrical resistivity or conductivity of soils and related media for express non-destructive mapping and monitoring of agricultural fields as well as construction and remediation sites. In a typical setting, a four-electrode probe is placed on the soil surface and an electrical resistivity or conductivity value is read from the digital display. The device measures electrical resistivity or conductivity in a surface soil layer of the depth from 2 cm down to 20 m, which is set by varying the size of a four-electrode probe.

LandMapper ERM-02 is the most versatile device in LandMapper series and allows you not only measure ER and EC using artificially applied electrical current and four-electrode probes, but also study natural electrical fields in soils (self-potentials) and plants (bio-potentials) with patented non-polarizing electrodes. Electrical balance between soil and plants is important for plant health and electrical potential gradient governs water and nutrient uptake by plants. Monitoring of electrical potentials in plants and soils is a cutting-edge research topic in the leading scientific centers around the world. 

Make your own four-electrode probe for soil mapping


  • ¾” PVC pipe, one section of 10’.
  • 2 T-shaped PVC pipe connectors fitting ¾” pipe from all three ends.
  • 2 ¾” PVC cups (optional).
  • #18 AWG isolated stranded wires, red and black, 15’ each.
  • 1”x2” Velcro strip (optional).
  • 3 #6 1.5” screws for wood (optional).
  • 4-electrode probe kit (available from Landviser, LLC) including:
    • - 4 stainless steel electrodes (sharpened d= ¼” L=6” bolts)
    • - 8 stainless steel ¼” nuts for connecting electrodes with the wires
    • - 4 nylon isolated terminals for 18” AWG wire with 5/16” opening
    • - 4 banana plugs (2 black, 2 red) for connecting with LandMapper terminals

2D Dipole-Dipole Electrical Tomography with LandMapper

Manual measuring of electrical resistivity 2D cross-section is possible with LandMapper with supplied (optional) or made by user cable set.

There are two modifications of 2D cable set offered and tested by Landviser, LLC:

  1. Mobile shallow (~2 m depth) set consisted of two T-style probes (AB and MN dipoles) similar to mapping probes. The dipoles are set at 1 m size with possible separation between dipoles (wire length) no more than 5 meters (n=5).
  2. Stationary set (~ 14 m depth) where electrodes are hammered on the soil surface along the straight line at one meter distance. Electrodes are simple metal spikes/nails and is sourced locally (are NOT provided by Landviser, LLC). We supply wires with banana-plug connections to LandMapper terminals on one end and alligator clips on the other end to connect with electrodes.

Principle of measurements with both sets is the same for both cable sets and is illustrated by figure below. You can also watch instructional videos on our YouTube Channel - LandviserLLC


0° 34' 51.8304" N, 71° 51' 2.1096" W

Sign up for webinar "Application of Geophysical Methods to Agriculture: Methods Employed"

Dr. Larisa Golovko (President of Landviser, LLC) will be presenting "Geophysical Methods of Electrical Resistivity and Self-Potential in Agriculture" in first of 



Agricultural Geophysics Webinar Series: "Application of Geophysical Methods to Agriculture: Methods Employed"

A live webinar on the application of geophysics to agriculture will be offered on:

Tuesday, February 18, 2014, from 3pm - 4:30pm EST
(2:00 - 3:30 CST, 1:00 - 2:30 MST, 12:00 - 1:30 PST)

This first in a series of agricultural geophysics webinars will focus on the near-surface geophysical methods presently being used for agricultural purposes, which include resistivity, self-potential, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar, dielectric sensors, VIS/NIR/MIR spectrometry, gamma ray spectrometry, mechanical soil compaction sensors, and ion selective potentiometry. Five presenters will provide a short overview of agricultural geophysical methods during the first 30 minutes of the webinar. The last hour of the webinar will be devoted to a panel discussion with the presenters, who will answer questions from the audience.


28° 8' 11.7564" N, 90° 50' 5.8596" W

SibER - multi-electrode resistivity surveying set

Landviser, LLC is offering advanced equipment for deep electrical tomography - Siber-48 - manufactured by KB Electrometry, Ltd in Novosibirsk, Russia. Since 2012 they started to produce modificated version of "SibER". New device has new safer body, powerfull generator (inject current up to 2A), provide more stable and faster measurments.

Price of the system ordered through us is the same as listed on Registered users can view complete price of the SibER-48 and SibER-64 equipped with two standard 5-m spaced cables in current catalog. Custom spacing of electrode connectors on the cables is also available per request.

Please, request your personalized quotation from us: or call 1-609-412-0555 / 1-888-306-LAND. The system is shipped worldwide from Russia, shipping costs will vary. See specification table at the bottom of this page on estimated weight of the system and components.

Electrical Geophysical Methods in Agriculture

Larisa presented paper and conducted workshop on "Electrical Geophysical Methods in Agriculture" at 4th International Symposium on Intelligent Information Technology in Agriculture (ISIITA) in Beijing, China.

Calibrate (calculate) K-coefficient for laboratory four-electrode cell

LandMapper with laboratory conductivity cellsLaboratory cells supplied by Landviser, LLC have been calibrated and the respective K-geometric coefficient is printed on the cell. The cells have to be filled to the top rim, in order for the coefficient to be accurate. Also, sometimes due to corrosion of conductive plates (electrodes) the coefficient of the cell might change slightly. Thus, you can verify K-coefficient of any cell, just follow instructions below.

For other tips, download Measuring Properties of Natural Systems with LandMapper ERM-02 (manual)


USDA-ARS Washington D.C., MD 38° 53' 42.4032" N, 77° 2' 10.9176" W

Kids using LandMapper to measure soil properties

Our first videos are accessible on YouTube now! Those introductory videos show how to use LandMapper for soil mapping and how simultaneously collect soil samples. It is so easy, even nine years old kids learned very quickly how to turn on the device and take measurements.

Story: Fourth graders from Bay Area Charter School in El Lago, TX were introduced to LandMapper - hand-held geophysical device - to assist them in undestanding soil properties and how they change during compaction. The project was undertaken in May 2012 to renovate high-traffic area near gym and playground of the elementary school. Kids learned how to make field observations and select areas with contrasting soil properties. They also learned that collecting soil samples by traditional methods is hard and "dirty" work. However, LandMapper can measure soil electrical resistivity (ER), a reciprocal of electrical conductivity (EC) - ER=1/EC - quickly and directly on the soil surface. Those electrical properties are related to many soil properties which reflect soil "health": compaction, stone content, salinity, fertility, texture, organic matter, and others. Using LandMapper to measure soil ER or EC prior to soil sampling can considerebly reduce time and effort in soil mapping and analysis. Best of all, LandMapper can be used anywhere - in farm fields, construction areas, flooded or frozen soils;  and by anyone - very little training is required!


BACES El Lago, TX 29° 34' 47.2656" N, 95° 2' 13.308" W

Evaluating cultivation level of sandy soils in European Russia with electro-geophysical methods

Electrical resistivity vs cultivation degree of sandy soils Update: Full PDF of the paper is now available!

Electrical resistivity of cultivated sandy soils of humid areas is a complex characteristic based on three fundamental properties of soil matrix, such as soil texture, total organic matter (carbon content) and cation exchange capacity (CEC). Relationship of electrical resistivity (ER) with those properties has been approximated with exponential equation ER=a*exp(-b*x), where x is any of the properties above. The correlation coefficients for ER as function of CEC, texture, or organic matter were between 0.82 and 0.91 for the soils of Klin-Dmitrov watershed near Moscow and Kirov, which suggests their applicability for other humid areas. We present a new approach to approximate exponential relationship ER=a*exp(b*x) with a linear “piece-wise” function based on the age of cultivation for each field.This approach was used to develop management zones based on ER to separate uniform areas of similar organic matter, CEC and clay content. Those basic properties are the foundation of soil fertility in humid areas. They influence biomass and bioactivity of soil microorganisms, thus the exponential relationship between ER and soil microorganisms was also observed. The approach based of electrical resistivity or conductivity was used to evaluate fertility and degree of cultivation of sandy soils in humid areas and for detail soil mapping and delineation of management zones in adaptive precision agriculture. The field and laboratory electrical geophysical methods are recommended for quick and accurate soil mapping and management in sustainable farming.

*at SAGEEP 2013, March 17-21 in Denver, CO, Larisa Golovko, Ph.D. will also present "Basic Theory of Measuring Electrical Resistivity, Conductivity and Self-Potential in Soils and Plants" with LandMapper ERM-02 and other commercially available geophysical equipment at post-conference workshop "Agricultural Geophysics: Theory and Methods".
SAGEEP 2013 logo
Cite this presentation as:

Anatoly Pozdnyakov, P.I. Eliseev, Larisa Golovko, Lev A. Pozdnyakov, Maria S. Dubrova, and E.P. Makarova. “Evaluating Cultivation Level of Sandy Soils in European Russia with Electro-geophysical Methods.” In New Views of the Earth. Denver, CO: Environmental and Engineering Geophysical Society, 2013.



Denver 39° 44' 15.2412" N, 104° 59' 4.9848" W
Klin, MOS 56° 19' 18.5304" N, 36° 42' 30.8772" E
KIR 58° 36' 16.8984" N, 49° 39' 58.5504" E
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