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Enlightening Research


Electrical Geophysical Methods in Agriculture

Larisa presented paper and conducted workshop on "Electrical Geophysical Methods in Agriculture" at 4th International Symposium on Intelligent Information Technology in Agriculture (ISIITA) in Beijing, China.

Setting K coefficient in LandMapper memory

LandMapper ERM-02

LandMapper ERM-02 is usually supplied with one four-electrode probe in Wenner configuration (optional) and the probe-specific coefficient K is preset in the device memory (K1). If you ordered or build multiple probes/cable arrays, you can change K1-K9 coefficients in the device. Note: K0=1 always and is not changeable by user!

  1. Press the power button to turn the device on. As the device is turned on the brief message "ASTRO-LANDVISER" is displayed on the screen of the device.
  2. Press and hold the FUNCTION key (►) and press the UP key (▲) to enter the coefficient changing mode.
  3. Scroll through K coefficients with the keys (▲) or (▼).  Change the value of the coefficient with the keys (◄) and (▲) or (▼). The digit to be changed is selected with the INPUT key (◄), the digit starts blinking and can be changed with the keys (▲) or (▼). The value of K0=01.00 is constant and cannot be changed by the user. If a measurement is taken using K0, the resulting output is resistance, not resistivity, and can be useful when the geometry of the array is constantly changing, as in 2D imaging or electrical tomography. In this case the resistance values can be multiplied by corresponding K coefficients according to the arrays used to obtain the resistivity. In conductivity mode, when measurements are taken with K0, the measured value is conductance, not conductivity, and the results can be converted to conductivity after measurements with appropriate geometrical coefficient.

Calibrate (calculate) K-coefficient for laboratory four-electrode cell

LandMapper with laboratory conductivity cellsLaboratory cells supplied by Landviser, LLC have been calibrated and the respective K-geometric coefficient is printed on the cell. The cells have to be filled to the top rim, in order for the coefficient to be accurate. Also, sometimes due to corrosion of conductive plates (electrodes) the coefficient of the cell might change slightly. Thus, you can verify K-coefficient of any cell, just follow instructions below.

For other tips, download Measuring Properties of Natural Systems with LandMapper ERM-02 (manual)


USDA-ARS Washington D.C., MD 38° 53' 42.4032" N, 77° 2' 10.9176" W

Kids using LandMapper to measure soil properties

Our first videos are accessible on YouTube now! Those introductory videos show how to use LandMapper for soil mapping and how simultaneously collect soil samples. It is so easy, even nine years old kids learned very quickly how to turn on the device and take measurements.

Story: Fourth graders from Bay Area Charter School in El Lago, TX were introduced to LandMapper - hand-held geophysical device - to assist them in undestanding soil properties and how they change during compaction. The project was undertaken in May 2012 to renovate high-traffic area near gym and playground of the elementary school. Kids learned how to make field observations and select areas with contrasting soil properties. They also learned that collecting soil samples by traditional methods is hard and "dirty" work. However, LandMapper can measure soil electrical resistivity (ER), a reciprocal of electrical conductivity (EC) - ER=1/EC - quickly and directly on the soil surface. Those electrical properties are related to many soil properties which reflect soil "health": compaction, stone content, salinity, fertility, texture, organic matter, and others. Using LandMapper to measure soil ER or EC prior to soil sampling can considerebly reduce time and effort in soil mapping and analysis. Best of all, LandMapper can be used anywhere - in farm fields, construction areas, flooded or frozen soils;  and by anyone - very little training is required!


BACES El Lago, TX 29° 34' 47.2656" N, 95° 2' 13.308" W

Evaluating cultivation level of sandy soils in European Russia with electro-geophysical methods

Electrical resistivity vs cultivation degree of sandy soils Update: Full PDF of the paper is now available!

Electrical resistivity of cultivated sandy soils of humid areas is a complex characteristic based on three fundamental properties of soil matrix, such as soil texture, total organic matter (carbon content) and cation exchange capacity (CEC). Relationship of electrical resistivity (ER) with those properties has been approximated with exponential equation ER=a*exp(-b*x), where x is any of the properties above. The correlation coefficients for ER as function of CEC, texture, or organic matter were between 0.82 and 0.91 for the soils of Klin-Dmitrov watershed near Moscow and Kirov, which suggests their applicability for other humid areas. We present a new approach to approximate exponential relationship ER=a*exp(b*x) with a linear “piece-wise” function based on the age of cultivation for each field.This approach was used to develop management zones based on ER to separate uniform areas of similar organic matter, CEC and clay content. Those basic properties are the foundation of soil fertility in humid areas. They influence biomass and bioactivity of soil microorganisms, thus the exponential relationship between ER and soil microorganisms was also observed. The approach based of electrical resistivity or conductivity was used to evaluate fertility and degree of cultivation of sandy soils in humid areas and for detail soil mapping and delineation of management zones in adaptive precision agriculture. The field and laboratory electrical geophysical methods are recommended for quick and accurate soil mapping and management in sustainable farming.

*at SAGEEP 2013, March 17-21 in Denver, CO, Larisa Golovko, Ph.D. will also present "Basic Theory of Measuring Electrical Resistivity, Conductivity and Self-Potential in Soils and Plants" with LandMapper ERM-02 and other commercially available geophysical equipment at post-conference workshop "Agricultural Geophysics: Theory and Methods".
SAGEEP 2013 logo
Cite this presentation as:

Anatoly Pozdnyakov, P.I. Eliseev, Larisa Golovko, Lev A. Pozdnyakov, Maria S. Dubrova, and E.P. Makarova. “Evaluating Cultivation Level of Sandy Soils in European Russia with Electro-geophysical Methods.” In New Views of the Earth. Denver, CO: Environmental and Engineering Geophysical Society, 2013.



Denver 39° 44' 15.2412" N, 104° 59' 4.9848" W
Klin, MOS 56° 19' 18.5304" N, 36° 42' 30.8772" E
KIR 58° 36' 16.8984" N, 49° 39' 58.5504" E

Happy New Year 2013 from Landviser LLC

LandMapper ERM-01 holiday sale - while supplies last!

We wish all our customers, friends, and collegues Merry Christmas, Happy New Year and wonderful holiday season!LandMapper is portable and scalable geophysical device

It has been a remarkable year for Landviser! We’ve completed several exciting projects with the focus on expanding capabilities of our LandMapper geophysical devices and helped many of our customers with their research. Our LandMapper geophysical devices have been gaining popularity around the globe. To extend our warmest Holiday wishes we are offering unprecidented discount of 20% on basic ERM-01 model from the current price of $1579. The new reduced price for ERM-01 of $1263 will be in effect until December 31, 2012 or while supplies last. Regular educational and dealers's discounts are still apply on the top of newly reduced price as stated in 

Current complete catalog of Landviser, LLC

To claim your ERM-01 now at a discounted price, email or call us (+1-609-412-0555) and mention promotion code 2012-12-ERM01. This offer is "first come, first serve" and is only available on pre-paid terms via credit card or wire transfer.Tax Deduction Info on www.Section179.Org!

Special Note for USA customers: Landviser's equipment and software qualify for tax deduction under Section 179. You still have time to purchase ERM-01, ERM-02 or RES2DINV/RES3DINV in 2012, before this deduction expires!

Landviser, LLC develops and sells portable handheld geophysical devices, Landmapper ERM-01 and ERM-02 for measuring electrical properties (electrical resistivity, conductivity, and potential)  in soils, plants and other semisolid and liquid media since 2003. This equipment is small, fully computer-integrated, and easy to use. It is very competitively priced and come handy many environmental, archaeological and agricultural applications, especially mapping and monitoring soil salinity and pollution. Information flyers can be downloaded from the links below:

More information on applications of both models is available in free publication in FastTIMES magazine:

Golovko, Larisa, Anatoly Pozdnyakov, and Antonina Pozdnyakova. “LandMapper ERM-02: Handheld Meter for Near-Surface Electrical Geophysical Surveys.” FastTIMES (EEGS) 15, no. 4 - Agriculture: A Budding Field in Geophysics (December 2010): 85–93.


Landviser LLC Houston 29° 45' 36.6948" N, 95° 22' 9.804" W

LandMapper ERM-02: handheld meter for near-surface electrical geophysical surveys (FastTIMES December 2010)

was published in December, 2010 issue of FastTIMES, online peer-reviewed journal of EEGS. To cite this publication use:FastTIMES dec 2010 Agriculture: A budding field in Geophysics

Golovko, Larisa, Anatoly Pozdnyakov, and Antonina Pozdnyakova. “LandMapper ERM-02: Handheld Meter for Near-Surface Electrical Geophysical Surveys.” FastTIMES (EEGS) 15, no. 4 - Agriculture: A Budding Field in Geophysics (December 2010): 85–93.

Registered users can download PDF of full text of proceedings paper from our website. Or browse online version below and leave your comments. You might also like to go to EEGS website to get PDFs of other publications on applications of geophysics to near-surface environmental problems published in this popular FREE online scientific magazine.


On-the-go sensors, designed to measure soil electrical resistivity (ER) or electrical conductivity (EC) are vital for faster non-destructive soil mapping in precision agriculture, civil and environmental engineering, archaeology and other near-surface applications. Compared with electromagnetic methods and ground penetrating radar, methods of EC/ER measured with direct current and four-electrode probe have fewer limitations and were successfully applied on clayish and saline soils as well as on highly resistive sandy soils, such as Alfisols and Spodosols. However, commercially available contact devices, which utilize a four-electrode principle, are bulky, very expensive, and can be used only on fallow fields. Multi-electrode ER-imaging systems applied in deep geophysical explorations are heavy, cumbersome and their use is usually cost-prohibited in many near-surface applications, such as forestry, archaeology, environmental site assessment and cleanup, and in agricultural surveys on farms growing perennial horticultural crops, vegetables, or turf-grass. In such applications there is a need for accurate, portable, low-cost device to quickly check resistivity of the ground on-a-spot, especially on the sites non-accessible with heavy machinery.


Laramie, WY 41° 18' 40.9212" N, 105° 35' 27.9636" W


Bedmar, A.P., and Araguás, L.A., 2002, Detection and prevention of leaks from dams: Taylor & Francis, Exton, PA.

Carrow, R.N., and Duncan, R.R., 2004, Soil salinity monitoring: present and future: Golf course management, no. November, p. 89-92.

Corwin, R., 1990, The self-potential method for environmental and engineering applications: Geotechnical and Environmental Geophysics, Soc. Expl. Geophysics, Tulsa, OK, p. 127-143.

Electrical potential differences between plants and topsoil

Many soil properties influencing plant growth and yield can be identified and mapped with electrical geophysical methods, which explains recent advances in electrical conductivity method application in precision agriculture. Moreover, our recent studies have shown that soil electrical potentials influence plant growth directly and electrical geophysical methods can be used to monitor plant health (Fedotov and Pozdnyakov, 2001).

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