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Enlightening Research


Make your own four-electrode probe for soil mapping


  • ¾” PVC pipe, one section of 10’.
  • 2 T-shaped PVC pipe connectors fitting ¾” pipe from all three ends.
  • 2 ¾” PVC cups (optional).
  • #18 AWG isolated stranded wires, red and black, 15’ each.
  • 1”x2” Velcro strip (optional).
  • 3 #6 1.5” screws for wood (optional).
  • 4-electrode probe kit (available from Landviser, LLC) including:
    • - 4 stainless steel electrodes (sharpened d= ¼” L=6” bolts)
    • - 8 stainless steel ¼” nuts for connecting electrodes with the wires
    • - 4 nylon isolated terminals for 18” AWG wire with 5/16” opening
    • - 4 banana plugs (2 black, 2 red) for connecting with LandMapper terminals

Getting started with 2D resistivity interpretation using RES2DINV

Presentation, embedded below was developed to bring users up to speed in interpretation of their resistivity data. Class for end users was conducted in Indonesia and included training on field data collection with SibER-48 using ~ 900 m long profile in Wenner-Schlumberger and pole-dipole (remote electrode) 2D tomography. On the second day users received hands-on instructions on data import into RES2DINV software, quality assurance of the data based on visual approach as well as through RMS of the interpretation model. 

General discussion about non-uniquness of the subsurface interpretation modl for 1D, 2D, and 3D representations has followed this class. 

Slides can be viewed on

SibER - multi-electrode resistivity surveying set

Landviser, LLC is offering advanced equipment for deep electrical tomography - Siber-48 - manufactured by KB Electrometry, Ltd in Novosibirsk, Russia. Since 2012 they started to produce modificated version of "SibER". New device has new safer body, powerfull generator (inject current up to 2A), provide more stable and faster measurments.

Price of the system ordered through us is the same as listed on Registered users can view complete price of the SibER-48 and SibER-64 equipped with two standard 5-m spaced cables in current catalog. Custom spacing of electrode connectors on the cables is also available per request.

Please, request your personalized quotation from us: or call 1-609-412-0555 / 1-888-306-LAND. The system is shipped worldwide from Russia, shipping costs will vary. See specification table at the bottom of this page on estimated weight of the system and components.

Formatting Array Input Data File in RES2DINV: surface electrodes for any geometry

pseudosection for 2D resistivity surveys

Example of electrodes arrangement and measurement sequence that can be used for a 2-D electrical imaging survey is shown on the left. Many different multi-electrode systems have been developed over the past 15 years using different arrangements of the cables and measurement strategies (Loke, 2011). This program is designed to invert large data sets (with about 200 to 100000 data points) collected with a system with a large number of electrodes (about 25 to 16000 electrodes). The survey is usually carried out with a system where the electrodes are arranged along a line with a constant spacing between adjacent electrodes. However, the program can also handle data sets with a non-uniform electrode spacing. RES2DINV program can be used for surveys using the Wenner, pole-pole, dipole-dipole, pole-dipole, Wenner-Schlumberger, gradient and equatorial dipole-dipole (rectangular) arrays. In addition to these common arrays, the program even supports non-conventional arrays with an almost unlimited number of possible electrode configurations (Loke et al. 2010). You can process pseudo sections with up to 16000 electrode positions and 70000 data points at a single time on a computer with 4 gigabytes (GB) of RAM. Besides normal surveys carried out with the electrodes on the ground surface, the program also supports aquatic and cross-borehole surveys.


Los Angelos 34° 3' 8.0424" N, 118° 14' 37.266" W
5° 49' 22.6488" S, 34° 58' 49.6884" E

RES3DINV - 3D inversion geophysical software for resistivity and induced polarization data

RES3DINV software -Create 3D models of subsurface resistivity or IP!
For Windows XP/Vista/7  (available for 32- and 64-bit PCs.)

3D surveys for pole-pole, pole-dipole, dipole-dipole, rectangular, trapezoid, Wenner, Wenner-Schlumberger,and non-conventional arrays.

Now available as a combined package together with RES2DINV, the 2D Resistivity & IP inversion program.
Supports exact and approximate least-squares optimisation methods
Supports smooth and sharp constrasts inversions
Supports up to 5041 electrodes and 67500 data points on computers with 1GB RAM
Supports trapezoidal survey grids
Supports parallel calculations on Pentium 4 (and compatible) based computers
Multi-core support with RES3DINVx32, 128GB memory support with RES3DINVx64

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