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LandMapper ERM-02 - new handheld EC/ER/SP meter

LandMapper - field EC meter with lab accuracy*We have a new bath of LandMappers ERM-02 in stock! Please, contact us or +1-609-412-0555 / 888-306-LAND to discuss suitability of ERM-01 or ERM-02 for your applications.  *******

LandMapper ERM-02 is a newest device in the product line of Landviser, LLC. This portative device can measure three important electrical properties of solid, semisolid, and liquid media: electrical resistivity (ER), conductivity (EC), and potential (EP). Using the most accurate four-electrode principle LandMapper ERM-02 measures ER or EC to help new deviceyou to delineate areas with contrasting soil properties within the fields quickly, non-destructively, and cost-efficiently. Using the device prior to soil sampling you can significantly reduce the amount of samples required and precisely design a sampling plan based on the site spatial variability.

LandMapper ERM-02 measures electrical resistivity or conductivity of soils and related media for express non-destructive mapping and monitoring of agricultural fields as well as construction and remediation sites. In a typical setting, a four-electrode probe is placed on the soil surface and an electrical resistivity or conductivity value is read from the digital display. The device measures electrical resistivity or conductivity in a surface soil layer of the depth from 2 cm down to 20 m, which is set by varying the size of a four-electrode probe.

LandMapper ERM-02 is the most versatile device in LandMapper series and allows you not only measure ER and EC using artificially applied electrical current and four-electrode probes, but also study natural electrical fields in soils (self-potentials) and plants (bio-potentials) with patented non-polarizing electrodes. Electrical balance between soil and plants is important for plant health and electrical potential gradient governs water and nutrient uptake by plants. Monitoring of electrical potentials in plants and soils is a cutting-edge research topic in the leading scientific centers around the world. 

Getting started with 2D resistivity interpretation using RES2DINV

Presentation, embedded below was developed to bring users up to speed in interpretation of their resistivity data. Class for end users was conducted in Indonesia and included training on field data collection with SibER-48 using ~ 900 m long profile in Wenner-Schlumberger and pole-dipole (remote electrode) 2D tomography. On the second day users received hands-on instructions on data import into RES2DINV software, quality assurance of the data based on visual approach as well as through RMS of the interpretation model. 

General discussion about non-uniquness of the subsurface interpretation modl for 1D, 2D, and 3D representations has followed this class. 

Slides can be viewed on

SibER - multi-electrode resistivity surveying set

Landviser, LLC is offering advanced equipment for deep electrical tomography - Siber-48 - manufactured by KB Electrometry, Ltd in Novosibirsk, Russia. Since 2012 they started to produce modificated version of "SibER". New device has new safer body, powerfull generator (inject current up to 2A), provide more stable and faster measurments.

Price of the system ordered through us is the same as listed on Registered users can view complete price of the SibER-48 and SibER-64 equipped with two standard 5-m spaced cables in current catalog. Custom spacing of electrode connectors on the cables is also available per request.

Please, request your personalized quotation from us: or call 1-609-412-0555 / 1-888-306-LAND. The system is shipped worldwide from Russia, shipping costs will vary. See specification table at the bottom of this page on estimated weight of the system and components.

Formatting Array Input Data File in RES2DINV: surface electrodes for any geometry

pseudosection for 2D resistivity surveys

Example of electrodes arrangement and measurement sequence that can be used for a 2-D electrical imaging survey is shown on the left. Many different multi-electrode systems have been developed over the past 15 years using different arrangements of the cables and measurement strategies (Loke, 2011). This program is designed to invert large data sets (with about 200 to 100000 data points) collected with a system with a large number of electrodes (about 25 to 16000 electrodes). The survey is usually carried out with a system where the electrodes are arranged along a line with a constant spacing between adjacent electrodes. However, the program can also handle data sets with a non-uniform electrode spacing. RES2DINV program can be used for surveys using the Wenner, pole-pole, dipole-dipole, pole-dipole, Wenner-Schlumberger, gradient and equatorial dipole-dipole (rectangular) arrays. In addition to these common arrays, the program even supports non-conventional arrays with an almost unlimited number of possible electrode configurations (Loke et al. 2010). You can process pseudo sections with up to 16000 electrode positions and 70000 data points at a single time on a computer with 4 gigabytes (GB) of RAM. Besides normal surveys carried out with the electrodes on the ground surface, the program also supports aquatic and cross-borehole surveys.


Los Angelos 34° 3' 8.0424" N, 118° 14' 37.266" W
5° 49' 22.6488" S, 34° 58' 49.6884" E

1D Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) with LandMapper Procedure

standard big manual VES cable set by LandviserThe technique and procedure described here can be performed with LandMapper ERM-01 or ERM-02 (set in resistivity mode). The electrode spacings provided in this example are identical to Landviser's supplied "big manual VES" cable set made to measure 16 layers of topsoil down to approximately 9 m. The worksheet for pre-set electrode spacings in such cable re-calculating measured resistivities to 1D VES profile can be downloaded as Manual 1D VES workbook (MS Excel format).

Other electrode spacings are possible for custom-made cable arrays to reach deeper profiles. For example, we developed and tested with LandMapper a 60m-long cable, measuring down to ~ 20 m for one custom hydrology project

This manual VES technique is most convenient to use with three people. Follow step-by-step instructions below. If you need further help, do not hesitate to contact Landviser, LLC @ +1-609-412-0555 or Register on our site and download 7 related publications and software!


San Antonio 29° 25' 26.8392" N, 98° 29' 37.0608" W
Dmitrov 56° 20' 39.0192" N, 37° 31' 2.5716" E

Vertical Electrical Sounding and Self-Potential Methods to Survey for Placement of Potable Water Wells

Science of Geophysics vs Art of DowsingWater is a precious commodity  in most urban and rural areas. Luck of local  potable  water sources threatens not only thriving but a mere survival of rural communities all over the world.  Establishing potable water wells requires a lot of fundings and resources and often cost prohibitive for local governments in South America and Africa.

Searching for shallow groundwater require knowledge of subsurface layers and locating intensity and directions of water fluxes, which can be accomplished with geophysical methods of vertical electrical sounding (VES) and self-potential (SP).  A method of VES can distinguish differences in electrical resistivity or conductivity at the multiple (10+) layers in soil profiles. These differences reveal the changes in soil texture and structure  between water-bearing and waterproof  layers,  which form a framework for  the subsurface water fluxes. 

The directions and intensities of the fluxes  can then be evaluated with the self-potential method. However, conventional equipment for VES and SP is very expensive, bulky and complicated to operate. We tested a simple low-cost handheld device, LandMapper ERM-02, to evaluate layers in the ground with VES method and results were well  correlated with drilled profiles in Central TX.  Information is provided for the VES array assembly, field measuring procedure and interpretation of sounding results. Previously, device was used in Astrakhan area, Russia for estimation of the groundwater table and salinity layers in the soil profiles. The method of self-potential was used to estimate subsurface water flux directions and intensities through the measured variation in electrical potential on the soil surface and direct potable wells placement in Kiev, Urkaine and Dmitrov, Russia.

Cite this presentation:SAGEEP 25 - 2012 - Tucson, AZ
Golovko, Larisa, Anatoly Pozdnyakov, and Terry Waller. “A Vertical Electrical Sounding and Self-Potential Methods to Survey for Placement of Potable Water Wells.” In Making Waves: Geophysical Innovations for a Thirsty World. Tucson  AZ: Environmental and Engineering Geophysical Society, 2012.


Water For All International San Angelo, TX 31° 27' 49.5792" N, 100° 26' 13.3368" W
SAGEEP 2012 Tucson, AZ 32° 13' 18.2748" N, 110° 55' 35.3244" W

RES3DINV - 3D inversion geophysical software for resistivity and induced polarization data

RES3DINV software -Create 3D models of subsurface resistivity or IP!
For Windows XP/Vista/7  (available for 32- and 64-bit PCs.)

3D surveys for pole-pole, pole-dipole, dipole-dipole, rectangular, trapezoid, Wenner, Wenner-Schlumberger,and non-conventional arrays.

Now available as a combined package together with RES2DINV, the 2D Resistivity & IP inversion program.
Supports exact and approximate least-squares optimisation methods
Supports smooth and sharp constrasts inversions
Supports up to 5041 electrodes and 67500 data points on computers with 1GB RAM
Supports trapezoidal survey grids
Supports parallel calculations on Pentium 4 (and compatible) based computers
Multi-core support with RES3DINVx32, 128GB memory support with RES3DINVx64

LandMapper ERM-01 - simple handheld resistivity meter

Throw away your augers and soil samplers! Well, not quite... LandMapper® ERM-01 is new non invasive device, which will help you to map land parcels with contrasting soil properties within the fields quickly, non destructivelyand cost-efficiently.

Landmapper is an excellent tool for soil mapping required for environmental consulting, golf courses maintenance, construction services, farm management, new land development, and real-estate planning. It is a must have tool for forensic and archaeological investigators, even for serious treasure hunters. Using this non invasive device prior to soil sampling you can significantly reduce the amount of samples required and precisely design a sampling plan based on the site spatial variability.

LandMapper® ERM-01 measures electrical resistivity or conductivity of soils and related media for express non invasive mapping and monitoring of agricultural fields as well as construction and remediation sites. In a typical setting, a four-electrode probe is placed on the surface and an electrical resistivity value is read from the digital display. The device measures electrical resistivity in a surface layer of the depth from 2 cm down to 20 m, which is set by varying the size of a four-electrode probe. Measurements are based on well-known four-electrode principle, which allows to avoid influence of electrode contact potential on measured electrical conductivity or resistivity of the media and obtain accurate readings.  The field tests were performed by our customers in USA, Russia, China, Canada, Sweden, France, Germany, Iraq, Dubai, Brazil, Panama and many others.

Electrical Geophysical Methods to Evaluate Soil Pollution from Gas and Oil Mining

transect across bitumen polluted soil and brune collectorElectrical geophysical methods were successfully used for exploration of gas and oil fields (Kalenev, 1970). However, the methods are not widely used for estimation of the soil pollution with petroleum products (Znamensky, 1980; Pozdnyakov et al., 1996a). The possibility of using the methods of electrical resistivity to evaluate the places of petroleum pollution or natural petroleum and gas deposits is based on highly different resistivities of soil and petroleum products. Petroleum and various products of petroleum manufacture, such as oil, gasoline, bitumen, and kerosene have very high electrical resistivity compared with soils. Electrical resistivity of petroleum varies from 104 to 1019 ohm m (Fedinsky, 1967), whereas resistivity of petroleum-saturated sand is much lower (2200 ohm m) (Znamensky, 1980), but is still higher than that of any non-polluted soil.

Soil pollution by the products of gas and petroleum mining was studied near Urengoi in northwest Siberia, Russia. The virgin soils, Glacic and Aquic Haplorthels, were extremely polluted with various by-products of petroleum extraction and manufacturing, such as bitumen, gasoline, kerosene, and mining brine solutions. The study area was thoroughly investigated with four-electrode profiling on 1.2-m array and vertical electrical sounding.


Urengoj 65° 57' 27" N, 78° 23' 4.2" E
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